Transformation of Sentence 

Transformation of Sentence 

Affirmative to Negative:

Rule 1: Only/ alone/ merely → স্থানে→ None but(ব্যক্তি)/ nothing but(বস্তু)/ not more than or not less than(সংখা)

Example:

Aff: Only Allah can help us.
Neg: None but Allah can help us.
Aff: He has only a ball.
Neg: He has nothing but a ball.
Aff: He has only ten taka.
Neg: He has not more than ten taka.

Rule 2: Must/Have to /Has to → স্থানে → Cannot but+মূল verb/ Cannot help+ (v+ing).

Example:

Aff: We must obey our parents.
Neg: we cannot but obey our parents/ we cannot help obeying our parents.

Rule 3: Both—-and → স্থানে → not only —- but also.

Example:

Aff: Both Dolon and Dola were excited.
Neg: Not only dolon but also Dola were excited

Rule 4: and (যদি দুটি শব্দ যোগ করে) →স্থানে → Not only —– but also.

Example:

aff: He was obedient and gentle. Neg: He was not only obedient but also gentle.

Rule 5: Everyone/ everybody/every person/ (every + common noun)/all → স্থানে → There is no + attached word + but.

Example:

Aff: Every mother loves her child.
Neg: There is no mother but loves her child.

Rule 6: As soon as → স্থানে → No sooner had —– Than.

Example:

Aff: As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.
Neg: No sooner had the thief seen the police than he ran away.

Rule 7: The Superlative degree → স্থানে → No other+ attached word+verb+so/as+ positive form+ as+subject.

Example:

aff: Dhaka is the biggest city in Bangladesh.
Neg: No other city is as big as Dhaka in Bangladesh.

Rule 8: প্রতিশব্দ বিপরীত শব্দ হবে। By Not.

Example:

Aff: I shall remember you.
Neg: I shall not forget you.

Rule 9: Always → স্থানে → Never প্রতিশব্দ বিপরীত শব্দ হবে।

Example:

aff: Raven always attends the class. Neg: Raven never misses the class.

Rule 10: Too —- to → স্থানে → so —that+Present হলে can not/ Pastহলেcould not.

Example:

Aff: He is too weak to walk.
Neg: He is so weak that he cannot walk.

Rule 11: As – as → স্থানে → Not less – than.

Example:

Aff: Simi was as wise as Rimi.
Neg: Simi was not less wise than Rimi.

Rule 12: Universal truth are change by making them negative interrogative.

Example:

Aff: The Sun sets in the west.
Neg: Doesn’t the Sun set in the west.

Rule 13: Sometimes স্থানে → Not + always.

Example:

Aff: Raven sometimes visits me.

Neg: Raven doesn’t always visit me.

Rule 14: Many → স্থানে → Not a few.

Example:

Aff: I have many friends.
Neg: I donot have few friends.

Rule 15: A few → স্থানে → not many.

Example:

Aff: Bangladesh has a few scholars. Neg: Bangladesh doesn’t have many scholars.

Rule 16: Much → স্থানে → A little.

Example:

Aff: He belongs much money.
Neg: He doesn’t belong a little money.

Rule 17: A little → স্থানে → not much.

Example:

Aff: Dolon has a little riches.
Neg: Dolon doesn’t have much riches.

Assertive to Interrogative:

>> Present Form=Don’t ?
>> Past Form=Didn’t ?
>> Verb+s/es=Doesn’t ?
>> Auxiluary Verb= Auxiluary Verb+n’t?
>> Every/Some/All/Body=Who ?

Rule 1: যদি sentence টি affirmative হয় তাহলে negative interrogative করতে হবে.আর যদি negative হয় affermative interrogative করতে হবে।

Example:

Ass: He was very gentle.
Int: was n’t he very gentle?
Aff: He is not a good person.
Int: Is he a good person?

Rule 2: যদি auxiliary verb না থাকে →
Present form হলে Do/ Don’t
Past form হলে Did/Didn’t.
Verb+s,es হলে Does/Doesn’t

Example:

Ass:He plays Football.
Int: Doesn’t he play football?
Ass: They did not play football yesterday.
Int: Did they play football yesterday?

Rule 3: Never → স্থানে → Ever.

Example:

Ass: I never drink tea.
Int: Do I ever drink tea?

Rule 4: Every body/everyone/ All → স্থানে → Who + Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t

Example:

Everybody wishes to be happy.
Int : Who doesn’t wish to be happy?

Rule 5: Every + noun → স্থানে → Is there any + noun+ Who don’t/doesn’t/
didn’t.

Example:

Ass: Every man wishes to be happy.
Int: Is there any man who doesn’t wish to be happy?

Rule 6: No body/ no one / None → স্থানে → Who.

Example:

Nobody could count my love for you.
Int: Who could ever count my love for you?

Rule 7 : There is no → স্থানে → Is there any/ Who(person)/ What( thing).

Example:

Ass: There is no use of this law.
Int: What is the use of this law?
Ass: There is no man happier than Jamil.
Int: Who is Happier than jamil?

Rule 8: It Is no → স্থানে → Is there any/Why.

Example:

Ass: It is no use of taking unfair means in the exam.
Int: Why take unfair means in the exam? Or,
Is there any use of this law?

Rule 9: It Doesn’t matter → স্থানে → what though/ Does it matter.

Example:

Ass: It does not matter if you fail in te exam.
Int: What though if you fail in the exam?

Exclamatory sentence to Assertive sentence:

Rule 1: what a/an → স্থানে → a very(before adjective)/ a great(before noun)

Example:

Ex: What a beautiful scenery!
Ass: It is a very beautiful scenery.
Ex: What a pity!
Ass: It is a great pity.

Rule 2: How → স্থানে → Very(before adjective)/ Great(before noun)

Example:

Ex: How fortunate you are!
Ass: You are very fortunate.
Exc: What a fool you are!
Ass: You are a great fool.

Rule 3: Hurrah/ Bravo → স্থানে → I/we rejoice that/ It is a matter of joy that.

Example:

Ex: Hurrah! We have own the game.
Ass: It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.

Rule 4: Alas → স্থানে → I/we Mourn that/ It is a matter of sorrow or grief that.

Example:

Ex: Alas! He has failed.
Ass: We mourn that he has failed.

Rule 5: Had/were/If /Would that(at the out set) → স্থানে → I wish + subject again + were/ had+ rest part.

Example:

Ex: Had I the wings of a bird!
Ass: I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Ex: Were I a bird!
Ass: I wish I were a bird.
Ex: If I were young again!
Ass: I wish I were young again.
Ex: would that I could be a child!
Ass: I wish I could be a child.

Imperative to Assertive:

Rule 1: subject + should+verb.

Example:

Ex: Do the work.
Ass: you should do the work.

Rule 2: Please/kindly → স্থানে→ you are requested to+verb.

Example:

Ex: Please, help me.
Ass: You are requested to help me.

Rule 3: Do not → স্থানে → You should not.

Example:

Ex: Do not run in the sun.
Ass: you should not run in the sun.

Rule 4: Never → স্থানে → you should never.

Example:

Ex: Never tell a lie.
Ass: You should never tell a lie.

Rule 5: Let us → স্থানে → We should.

Example:

Ex: Let us go out for a walk.
Ass: We should go out for a walk.

Rule 6: Let + noun/pronoun → স্থানে → Subject + might.

Example:

Ex: Let him play football.
Ass: He might play football.

Sentence কে ৩ ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়। যথাঃ

1.Simple Sentence(সরল বাক্য)
2.Complex Sentence(জটিল বাক্য)
3.Compound Sentence(যৌগিক বাক্য)

1.Simple Sentence(সরল বাক্য):

যে বাক্যে একটি মাত্র subject ও Finite verb থাকে তাকে Simple Sentence বলে।

Example:

The sun rises in the east.

2.Complex Sentence(জটিল বাক্য):

যে বাক্যে একটি প্রধান বাক্য ও এক বা একাধিক আশ্রিত বাক্য পরস্পর সাপেক্ষ ভাবে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাকে Complex Sentence বলে।

Example:

We eat food so that we can alive.

3.Compound Sentence(যৌগিক বাক্য):

পরস্পর নিরপেক্ষ দুই বা ততোধিক সরল বাক্য বা মিশ্র বাক্য Conjunction দ্বারা যুক্ত একটি সম্পূর্ণ বাক্য গঠন করে তাকে Compound Sentence বলে।

Example:

Do or die.

Simple Sentence to Complex Sentence:

Rule-1. Simple sentence -এ যদি present participle বা verb এর সাথে ing যুক্ত শব্দ থাকে, সেক্ষেএে present participle এর বাকি অংশটি যে tense থাকে, present participle এর অংশকে ও সেই একই tense এ গঠন করতে হয় একই subject দিয়ে।

Structure:

When/since/as + subject + ing যুক্ত verb এর মূল form + obj.

Simple: Reaching home, I found my mother ill.

Complex: When I reached home, I found my mother ill.

Rule-2. In Spite of/despite যুক্ত Simple sentence কে complex করতে হলে।

Structure:

In spite of/despite এর পরিবর্তে Though/although + Subject+ verb+noun/adjective+comma + extension.

Simple: In spite of his poverty, he is honest.

Complex: Though he is poor, he is honest.

Rule-3. Because of, owing to, due to, on account of/for যুক্ত simple sentence কে complex করার নিয়ম

Structure:

Since/as + Subject + verb + adjective/noun + comma +extension.

Simple: Because of his honesty, he was rewarded.

Complex: As he was honest, he was rewarded.

Rule-4. Simple sentence এর গঠন subject + verb + object + present participle-এ রকম থাকলে

Structure:

Subject + verb + object + relative pronoun + to be verb + present participle সহ বাকি।

Simple: I saw a bird flying in the sky.

Complex: I saw a bird which was flying in the sky.

Rule-5. Too…To দ্বারা যুক্ত sentence কে so….that দ্বারা complex করা হয়।

Simple: Samin is too intelligent to get GPA 5.

Complex: Samin is so intelligent that he can get GPA 5.

Rule-6. Infinitive দ্বারা যুক্ত simple sentence কে so that দ্বারা complex করা হয়।

Simple: Jhon reads attentively to do good result.

Complex: Jhon reads attentively so that he can do good result.

Compound to Complex 

Rule-1. And যুক্ত Compound Sentence-এর একটি Clause যদি অপরটির কারন বা সময় নির্দেশ করে, তবে উক্ত Compound Sentence টিকে Complex করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Since/as/when + 1st sentence + and পরিবর্তে (,) + 2nd sentence.

Compound: He came to me and I felt tired.

Complex: When he came to me, I felt tired.

Rule-2. But যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Complex করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Although/though + 1st sentence + but এর পরিবর্তে (,) + বাকি sentence.

Compound: The boy tried hard but could not win the match.

Complex: Though the boy tried hard hard, he could not win the match.

Rule-3. Or যুক্ত Compound Sentence কে Complex করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

If + Sub + do not + 1st Clause + or এর পরিবর্তে (,) + sub + will + or এর পরবর্তী অংশ।

Compound: Do or die.

Complex: If you do not do, you will die.

Rule-4. And দ্বারা যুক্ত cause and effect নির্দেশক compound sentence কে so…. that দ্বারা complex sentence করা হয়।

Compound: Farhan works very hard and he can shine in life.

Complex: Farhan works so hard that he can shine in life.

Rule-5. And দ্বারা যুক্ত উদ্দেশমুলক compound sentence কে so that দ্বারা complex sentence করা হয় ।

Compound: We take balance diet and we can keep good health.

Complex: We take balance diet so that we can keep good health.

Simple to Compound

Rule-1. Present Participle যুক্ত Simple sentence কে compound করার ক্ষেএে –

Structure:

1st sub + main verb + কমার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + (,) এর স্থলে and + sub এর পরের অংশ।

Simple: Fishing the work, we went to the playground.

Compound: We finished the work and went to the playground.

Rule-2. Being যুক্ত simple sentence কে compound করার ক্ষেএে

Structure:

Sub + Beingএর বাকি অংশ যে tense এর থাকে সেই tense ও person অনুযায়ী to be verb বসে + being এর পরের অংশ + কমা উঠে and + sub বাদে এর পরের অংশ।

Simple: Being father, he can not neglect his son.

Compound: He is father and can not neglect his son.

Rule-3. Having যুক্ত বা perfect participle যুক্ত simple sentence কে compound sentence এ পরিবর্তন করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Sub + Tense অনুযায়ী verb ‘to have’ + কমার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + and + sub এর পরের অংশ ।

Simple: Having written the letter, I posted it.

Compound: I had written the letter and it.

Rule-4. In spite of/Despite যুক্ত simple sentence কে but দ্বারা compound করতে হয়।

Simple: In spite of his dishonesty, he was reworded.

Compound: He was dishonest but reworded.

Rule-5. Without + Gerund যুক্ত Simple Sentence যদি শর্ত বুঝাই, তবে ‘or’ যুক্ত করে compound করতে হয়।

Structure:

Without উঠে গিয়ে ing যুক্ত verb এর present form বসবে + কমা এর স্থলে or + কমা এর পরের অংশ।

Simple: Without going, you will die.

Compound: Go or you will die.

Rule-6. By Gerund যুক্ত simple sentence কে and যোগ করে compound করতে হয়।

Structure:

By উঠে গিয়ে ing যুক্ত verb এর present form বসবে + কমার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + কমা স্থলে and + কমার পরের অংশ।

Simple: By wasting your time, you can spoil your life.

Compound: Waste your time and you can spoil your life.

Rule-7. Too….to যুক্ত Simple Sentence Compound করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Sub + ‘to be’ verb + too এর পরিবর্তে very + Adjective + and + can not/could not + to বাদে পরের অংশ।

Simple: He is too dull to understand it.

Compound: He is very dull and can not understand it.

Complex to Compound

Rule-1. Since, as, when ইত্যাদি conjunction যুক্ত Complex sentence কে Compound sentence এ পরিবর্তন করার সময় since/as/when তুলে দিতে হয় এবং এর পর complex sentence কমা তুলে দিয়া সেখানে and বসালেই compound sentence হয়ে যায়।

Complex: When i went there, I found him.

Compound: I went there and found him.

Rule-2. Though/although যুক্ত Complex sentence কে Compound sentence পরিবর্তন করতে হলে though/ although তুলে দিতে হয় এবং এর পরে কমা তুলে দিয়ে সেখানে but বসাতে হয়।

Complex: Although it rained heavily, he went out without an umbrella.

Compound: It rained heavily but he went out without an umbrella.

Rule-3. Complex sentence যদি If দ্বারা শুরু হয় এবং if যুক্ত Clause এ যদি not থাকে, তবে compound sentence এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে if থেকে not পর্যন্ত অংশ তুলে দিতে হবে এবং এর পর কমা তুলে দিয়া সেই স্থানে ‘or’ বসালেই compound sentence হবে।

Complex: If you do not read, you will fail.

Compound: Read or you will fail.

Complex to Simple

Rule-1. Since/when/as যুক্ত complex sentence এর দুটি Clause এর subject এর হলে এবং দুটি Clause এ  principal verb থাকলে নিচের নিয়ম করতে হবে।

Structure:

Since/when/as এর প্রথম subject তুলে দিয়ে main verb ing form করতে হবে + কমা সহ বাকি অংশ।

Complex: When i went there, I found him absent.

Simple: Going there, I found him absent.

Rule-2. Since/as যুক্ত complex sentence যদি কারন বুঝাই, তাহলে Because of, Due to, Owing to, On account of ইত্যাদি দিয়ে করতে হয়।

Structure:

Because of/ Due to/ Owing to/ On account of + verb + ing অথবা fog/rough weather/cold + Extension.

Complex: Since there was fog, he could not go out.

Simple: Due to fog, he could not go out.

Rule-3. If যুক্ত শর্তমূলক Negative complex sentence কে simple sentence করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

If থেকে not পর্যন্ত তুলে দিয়ে without বসাতে হবে + verb + ing + কমা সহ বাকি অংশ ।

Complex: If you do not come, you will not get the pen.

Simple: Without coming, you will not get the pen.

Rule-4. If যুক্ত Negative Complex Sentence এর দুটি Clause এর subject ভিন্ন হলে নিম্নরুপ হবে।

Structure:

If এর স্থলে without + subject এর possessive form বসে + Auxiliary verb ও not উঠে যায় + main verb + ing + Extension.

Complex: If he does not stay at office, I shall not meet him.

Simple: Without his staying at office, I shall not meet him.

Rule-5. ‘So that’ যুক্ত Complex sentence কে simple করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

So that থেকে principal verb এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত উঠে গিয়ে সে স্থলে to বসে + বাকি অংশ বসে।

Complex: People work hard so that they may shine in life.

Simple: People work hard to shine in life.

Rule-6. ‘So …. that’ যুক্ত complex sentence কে simple sentence এ পরিবর্তন করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Sub + verb + so এর স্থলে too + adjective/adverb + that থেকে not পর্যন্ত উঠে যায় + to + Extension.

Complex: They are so nice that they can not be used just at present.

Simple: They are too nice to be used just at present.

Rule-7. Though/Although যুক্ত Complex sentence কে Simple sentence করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Although/though-এর স্থলে In spite of/ Despite বসে + Subject এর possessive form + being/having + extension.

Complex: Though he was dishonest, he was set free.

Simple: In spite of his being dishonest, he was set free.

Rule-8. Complex Sentence এ Relative pronoun টি যদি subject কে নির্দেশ করে সেক্ষেত্রে simple sentence-এ পরিবর্তনের সময় উক্ত relative pronoun এবং তৎপরবর্তী verb উঠে যায়।এবং relative pronoun এর পরের adjective-টি subject এর পূর্বে বসে ।

Complex: The man who is drowning cateachs at a straw.

Simple: A drowning man catches at a straw.

Compound to Simple

Rule-1. And দ্বারা যুক্ত compound sentence-এর and এর উভয় অংশের subject যদি এক হয়, তবে একে simple sentence এ পরিবর্তনের নিয়মঃ

Compound: He finished the work and return home.

Simple: Finishing the work, he returned home.

Rule-2. And যুক্ত compound sentence এর উভয় অংশের subject যদি একই হয় এবং প্রথম অংশের sentence টি যদি কারন নির্দেশ করে, সেক্ষেত্রে নিচের নিয়মে simple করতে হবে।

Structure:

Because of/ Due to/ Owing to/ on account of + 1st sentence এর subject এর possessive form + main verb + ing/ being/having + but এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + কমা + sub + verb + extension.

Compound: I was ill and I could not attend the meeting.

Simple: Because of my being ill, I could not attend the meeting.

Rule-3. But যুক্ত compound sentence এ যদি but এর পরে subject ও verb না থাকে তবে, simple sentence পরিবর্তন করতে হলে নিচের নিয়মঃ

Structure:

In spite of / Despite + Subject এর possessive form + main verb + ing + being/having + but এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + কমা + subject + verb + extension.

Compound: He is poor but honest.

Simple: In spite of his being, he is poor.

Rule-4. ‘Or’ যুক্ত compound sentence কে simple sentence এ পরিবর্তন করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Without + 1st main verb + ing + verb এর পরের অংশ + কমা +  বাকি অংশ।

Compound: Move or will die.

Simple: Without moving, you will die.

Rule-5. Not only …. but also যুক্ত compound sentence কে simple করার নিয়মঃ

Structure:

Besides + not only যুক্ত ব্যকের মূল verb এর সাথে ing + not only উঠে যাবে + but also এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত + (,) + মূল subject + but also অংশে verb না থাকলে প্রথম অংশের verb + but এর পরের অংশ।

Compound: Our teachers not only teach us but also guide us.

Simple: Besides teaching us, our teacher guide us.

Rule-6. And দ্বারা যুক্ত সময় নির্দেশক Compound sentence -কে In, On, At ইত্যাদি time word দ্বারা simple sentence করা হয়।

Compound: It was raining and Siam came to me.

Simple: At the time of raining Siam came to me.

Rule-7. ‘And দ্বারা যুক্ত উদ্দেশ্যমুলক compound sentence কে Infinitive দ্বারা simple sentence করা হয়।

Compound: He reads attentively and she can do good result.

Simple: He reads attentively to do good result.

Compilation: Mostafizar Moshtak

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